Obesity, diabetes, gout, thyroid disease – what connects these distant medical units? Why have they been mentioned in one breath? All are related to abnormalities of metabolism – metabolic defects and are termed metabolic diseases.
Constant, elevated blood glucose and life-threatening, rapid spikes in glucose levels – this is diabetes, often the dramatic consequence of excessive obesity and physical inactivity.
And the finale? Damage to kidneys, cardiovascular system, sight, leg amputation due to diabetic foot … Gout – metabolic disease leading to the formation of urinary crystals that damage the joints.
Obesity – how to see if it is not too obese?
Metabolic disorders include, inter alia, excessive energy (caloric) consumption following the body’s needs. As a result, the excess energy stored in fatty tissues reaches the store.
So eating more than necessary, we store excess of fat-delivered calories. It’s not just about eating fatty foods but also highly processed foods, simple sugars, sweets and sweet drinks.
Obesity is aggravating, excessive deaths occur, coronary heart disease, varicose veins, stroke, cancer, infertility, and even mental illness. Studies conducted by the World Health Organization have shown that overweight affects 50-75% of the population of men and women.
How to find out if we are no longer obese?
To avoid obesity or at least to assess its rise, in addition to regular weight control and constant pressure measurement, also specify your:
1. BMI, which increases to body weight. The correct BMI is 18.5-24.9. A value of 25-29.9 indicates overweight, while a BMI of more than 30 indicates obesity.
2. Weight Hips Ratio, waist circumference to hip circumference, used to determine the distribution of adipose tissue and type of obesity.
Abdominal obesity is men’s obesity, so called “obesity”. “Apple.” It is associated with a higher risk of metabolic disorders, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and infertility in women and men.
“Apple.” It is associated with a higher risk of metabolic disorders, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and infertility in women and men.
The other is female obesity, the so-called gynoid. “Pear”, which consists in locating adipose tissue around the hips and buttocks.
3. The level of body fat that we can measure at home with simple instruments or more advanced health care facilities. Under normal conditions, fat accounts for about 15% of body weight. We talk about obesity when fat is more than 25% of men and 30% in women.
Diabetes – what tests to carry out to diagnose it?
This is a metabolic disease caused by the absence or malfunction of insulin (pancreatic secreted by the pancreas) with chronic high blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Using glucose as a source of energy requires an adequate amount of properly acting insulin.
Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of insulin-producing pancreas cells, by the body’s autoimmune mechanisms (aggression against its own tissues), leading to absolute insulin deficiency.
Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for up to 95% of all cases of diabetes, is caused by insufficiency of the body’s insulin production and, to a lesser extent, insulin deficiency.
Symptoms that indicate the possibility of developing diabetes include persistent urge, frequent urination (polyuria), weight loss, increased appetite (dizziness), somnolence, general weakness, inflammation of the genitourinary tract (often felt as itching in the area of intimate body areas), as well as skin lesions (such as erosive erosions and genital mucosal cracks).
It must be borne in mind that diabetes accelerates atherosclerosis, which belongs to the mechanisms underlying ischemic heart disease, its dramatic variant in the form of myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular disease of the lower limbs.
Laboratory tests for obese and potential diabetic patients
Obesity combined with lack of physical activity causes the body to resist insulin. This, in turn, leads to high levels of insulin and glucose at the same time. Increased glucose levels damage many organs (mainly blood vessels and kidneys), and consequently complications of diabetes, which often lead to fatal outcomes (cardiovascular death, cerebral stroke).
1. Fasting blood glucose test
2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
4. Biochemical liver tests
Gout – how to recognize this disease?
It is a disease in which the wrong metabolic pathway of the purine bases occurs, the final product of which is uric acid. Once it was seen as a disease of the rich and associated with rich in meat, alcohol, and fats diet. It is manifested by recurrent inflammation and arthritis in joints, mainly the pelvis and palatal jaw, jaw or knee.
Symptoms are caused by precipitation of uric acid in joints and periarticular structures when blood levels rise. Pain attacks that last from a dozen or so weeks to a few weeks are most commonly caused by physical activity, alcohol, trauma, certain medications and surgical procedures. A few years after the first attack, chronic, multifocal inflammation develops in the vicinity of joints, longitudinal modules.
Excessive increase in uric acid (hyperuricemia) may be primary (developing as a result of innate metabolic defects) or secondary, which is a consequence of, among others. Increased supply of certain products in the diet. Complications of hyperuricemia can be gout and kidney damage.
Dna prophylaxis is based on avoiding products rich in purines, offal (liver), soups cooked on meat and legumes (peas, lentils). It is also important to limit the consumption of tea and coffee that have a diuretic effect. Do not acidify the body with sweets, greasy products or cola drinks.
Obese people in the fight against gout will help get rid of unnecessary kilograms. In this situation, however, it is not worthwhile to act on your own, because poorly selected exercise and diet can worsen the condition of the patient. Therefore, it is worth to lose weight under the supervision of a rheumatologist and dietician.
Diagnosis of gout
The primary test is the determination of serum uric acid, which can be done in one of the many laboratories – for example in the Diagnostics network. The recommended test is urine analysis, which checks the level of excretion of this acid from the body. The alarming results of these tests may be the basis for the examination of the articular fluid taken by the physician to identify the crystals of the sodium urate. This study is decisive for the diagnosis of arthritis.
Thyroid and her hormones – how to diagnose whether we have problems with her?
The thyroid gland, the endocrine gland, is located under the skin in the front of the neck. Thanks to this, its pathological enlargement is quickly perceived by the patient and his surroundings. Thyroid hormones and their metabolites, ie, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and their active forms – free T3 (fT3) and free T4 (fT4), as well as calcitonin (Ct), affect metabolism and phosphate-calcium management body.
Thyroid activity is affected by iodine levels. When iodized salt is used, even in the foothills, the supply of iodine is sufficient. Thyroid regulation occurs in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis.
Hormones affecting thyroid activity include thyrotoxins (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which are released by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, respectively.
Both hormones stimulate or inhibit the production of thyroid hormones. In simplified terms, a decrease in TSH levels indicates hyperthyroidism and an increase in its hypothyroidism.
Hyperthyreosis, which is an over-production of thyroid hormones, is more common in women than in men. Its typical symptoms are feeling hot, excessive sweating, weight loss despite increased appetite, heart rate and palpitations, neck circumference, anxiety, tremor, sleeplessness.
Hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism), associated with the insufficient production of thyroid hormones, occurs approximately 5 times more often in women than in men, and its incidence increases with age. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include weight gain, weakness, drowsiness, chills, subcutaneous edema, constipation, dry skin, hair loss and heart decay.
Determination of thyroid hormone levels
Diagnostics is possible to determine the hormones depicting the physiological state of the thyroid gland. Basic markings concern TSH and FT3 and FT4, the so-called. the fraction of free T3 and T4 hormones, as they are only biologically active.
TSH alone has a low diagnostic value as there are a number of thyroid pathologies associated with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in which TSH levels are normal with obvious deviations in thyroid hormone levels: FT4 and FT4. A thyroid test is one of the cheapest immunochemical tests performed on one blood sample. No referral required.